Few African states hold free and fair elections. Most of the elections are either ‘rigged’ or the process is mismanaged from the campaigns til the voting day. In this paper, the point is to examine how the the politicisation of ethnicity during electoral competition triggers ethnicised conflict in Kenya. Based on the instrumentalist theory of ethnic conflict, the paper critically studies the use of ethnicity by the Kenyan political elites as a tool to mobilise their ethnic groups promising to create political and socio-economic opportunities at the expense of neglecting the other tribes. The paper sheds a light on the trajectory of politics from 1963 up until the 2007 post-election crisis and how the politicisation of ethnicity created a sense of mistrust and national division among the diverse ethnic communities in Kenya. Continue reading
This paper studies the arrival of ‘Windrush Generation’ and how it has contributed to Britain’s multi-cultural society. Drawing heavily from the historical process, which seeks to explain how the West Indians arrived in Britain and integrated into a predominately White Britons, the paper critically examines into why the immigrants’ expectations of welcoming reception and a better life were not initially met. It also carefully interrogates the struggles and challenges that the Caribbean migrants went through and the racial pressures that surrounded their integration into British society. In the end, the paper further looks at the implications that their arrival had on the state of race relations and political environment that surrounded in the adaptation of Immigration Control Acts.
Somaliland’s Government perceives it as an opportunity to gain recognition; Somalia’s Federal Government, on the other hand, envisages recognition as a process of tearing the ‘Somali Republic’ apart. Whatever the myths surrounding any rational decision, the world is watching to see whether Somalis mend or break the fence that has divided them for decades. Continue reading
Wadankii ugu dhaqaale korniinka badnaa dunidu wuu bukoonaya. Waxa halis ku jira jiritaankiisii, duniduna farta ayey wadnaha ku haysaa. Afartii sanno ee la soo dhaafay, Itoobiya waxa lugaha ugu duubmay maro-boob siyaasadeed iyo mid amni-darro. Sumcaddii diblumaasiyadeed ee ay dunida iyo Afrikaba ku lahayd baa dhaawac la gaadhsiiyey. Dhaqaalahoodii culays weyn baa soo foodsaaray, waxaan hoos u sii dhacaya dhaqdhaqaaqyadii ganacsi iyo maalgeshigii shisheeyaha, taas oo keentay in heerka shaqo la’aantu si xawli ah sarre ugu kaco. Continue reading
In the developing world, more than a third of their urban populations live in areas where the social amenities such as water, healthcare, housing and education are desperately needed. Therefore, the state institutions and their policies– whether or not supported by aid agencies and development banks – need to work harder in addressing these problems. But for many scholars, the attention does not only focus on the role of state institutions or international NGOs but the part of the poor groups themselves. This is because the traditional state-managed approaches to poverty alleviation have not fully met the demands of a vast majority of the urban population. Continue reading
‘Poor people’, though contribute to the vast majority of the developing world, their role in shaping the political dramas [within state] is always over-looked. They hardly get noticed in the political spectrum. Not because they do not participate in the political exercises but their representation as ‘poor people’ is significantly underestimated in many parts of the Global South. With this in mind, James Scott introduced a theoretical concept ‘everyday resistance’ in 1985, to study how people act in their everyday lives in ways that might undermine power which is typically hidden, individual and not politically articulated. Continue reading